It is a positive commandment from the Torah to "bentch" the Birkas Hamozohn after eating a meal with bread, as it is written, "V’ochalto, v’sovoto, uvayrachto, es Hashem Elohkecho" (And you should eat and be satisfied, then you should bless Hashem your G-d.) Each of the words in this sentence of the Torah stands for a different part of "bentching". Each blessing was set down at a different time in history.

"v’ochalto": "Birkas Hazon"
In the desert, Hashem sent "mon" (food that came down from Heaven) for the Jews. At that time, Moshe decreed that this blessing be said. It begins with "hazon es ho-ohlom" (who nourishes the entire world), and ends with the words, "hazon es hakohl" thanking Hashem for (giving food to everyone).

"v’sovoto": "Birkas Ho-oretz"
After we entered Eretz Yisroel, Yehoshua decreed that this blessing be added to Birkas Hamozohn. This blessing begins with "Nohde l’cho", and ends with "al ho-oretz v’al hamozohn" (thanking Hashem for giving us Eretz Yisroel)

"Uvayrachto": "Bohnay Y’rusholoyim"
King David and King Solomon decreed that this blessing be added. It begins with the words "Rachaym", and ends with "Bohnay b’rachamov Y’rusholoyim, omayn". In it we thank Hashem for Jerusalem and the "Bays Hamikdosh".

Immediately following the blessing "Bohnay Y’rusholoyim", comes the "brocha": "Hatohv v’hamaytiv" (thanking Hashem for always doing good).
The Rabbis decreed this blessing after what happened in the city of Baytar. There, the Romans killed many Jews and did not allow us to bury the dead bodies. "Hatohv" stands for the miracle which Hashem did for us, by not letting the bodies rot or even smell badly. "Hamaytiv" thanks Hashem for allowing us to bury the dead later. (Brochohs 48B)

"Es Hashem Elohkecho"
"Es" would seem to be an extra word. However, it is put there to include a special blessing for the one who invited us to their home. That, of course, is the host. (B’ayr Haytayv 201:3)

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